Thursday, May 21, 2020
Crime and Delinquency In 1939 Criminologist Edwin H. Sutherland proposed his theory of Differential Association in his Principles of Criminology textbook. Differential Association theory states that criminal behavior is learned behavior. Sutherland along with Richard Cloward, and Lloyd Ohlin attempted to explain this phenomenon by emphasizing the role of learning. To become a criminal, a person must not only be inclined toward illegal activity, he or she must also learn how to commit criminal acts. SutherlandÃ¢â¬â¢s differential association theory contends that people whose environment provides the opportunity to associate with criminals will learn these skills and will become criminals in response to strain. If the necessary learningÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦5) The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from the definition of legal codes are favorable and unfavorable 6) A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law 7) Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity 8) The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patters involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. 9) Through criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values. The weak points of the theory of Edwin Sutherland are (1) doesnt specifically answer why everyone in contact with an excess of criminal behavior patterns doesnt become criminal and (2) differential Association also fails to tell us how the first criminal became a criminal. A group of labeling theorists began exploring how and why certain acts were defined as criminal or deviant and why other such acts were not. They questioned how and why certain peopleShow MoreRelatedJuvenile Delinquency Is A Crime967 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJuvenile Delinquency is a crime categorize mainly based on age. Juvenile delinquency the definition under the criminal law it generally refers to behavior which shall be subject to criminal penalties for people age under 18 being implemented. Juvenile delinquency is an increasingly common social problem facing the U.S currently. The problem of juvenile delinquency is also very prominent, and the severity of their crimes have been gaining awareness of the whole society. Poor social environment isRead MoreCrime and Delinquency Subculture2061 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCrime and delinquency subculture reflects on culture patterns surrounding crime and juvenile delinquency. It is created not only by individuals, but as one culture, the American culture. Subculture is derivative of, but different from some larger referential cultures. This term is used to share systems of norms, values, individual, groups and the cultural system itself. Criminal or delinquent subcultures indicate systems of norms, values, or interest that support criminal or delinquent behaviorRead MoreThe Theory Of Crime And Delinquency1978 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesarticulate the role that society puts on why crime happens. People in society tend to blame delinq uent peers, subcultures, and parenting socialization for most of the crime that takes place in the world. This outlook on crime can be resembled to the biosocial theory. According to Crime and Delinquency, by Larry Siegel the biosocial theory is, Ã¢â¬Å"An approach to criminology that focuses on the interaction between biological and social factors as they relate to crime.Ã¢â¬ Thus exploring the biological aspectsRead MoreJuvenile Crime And Juvenile Delinquency1322 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages(Proverbs 22:6 New International Version). Juvenile crime, in law, term denoting various offense committed by children or youth under the age of 18. U.S. official crime reported that in the mid-1900Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"about one-fifth of all persons arrested for crimes were under the age of 18Ã¢â¬ (Funk Wagnalls, 2014). Such acts are sometimes referred to as juvenile delinquency (Funk Wagnalls, 2014. Offering constructive programs reduces juvenile delinquency and reduces recidivism. Ã¢â¬Å"From the beginning, the principalRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency And Juvenile Crime Essay2267 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesJuvenile delinquency, as well as juvenile gangs are interesting and popular topic in the world of criminal justice. What criminological theories tie in with the problems of juvenile delinquency, juvenile gangs, and the reasons why juveniles do what they do? This paper explains the theories that tie in with the why, and how juveniles end up the way they do. Using the different theories explained in this paper you could hypothesize an explanation as to why the juvenile committed a crime or joinedRead MoreGeneral Theory Of Crime And Delinquency919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeneral Theory of Crime and Delinquency Many theories exist including biological, psychological, and sociological theories that have been proposed by many criminologists in the criminal justice field and have been closely studied by people (Agnew, Cullen, Wilcox, 2004). Most theories are proposed at the micro level meaning it tries to explain the criminal behavior of individuals and some are proposed at the macro level which tries to explain the crime rates in social groups, meaning micro focusesRead MoreJuvenile Crime And Juvenile Delinquency1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDay in and day out residents and visitors to the Boston area are affected by juvenile crime and delinquency. Though the crime rates in MA and across the nation are on a steady decline, these juvenile crimes are still considered a serious matter that needs attention. It is thought that juvenile offenders do not cope as well with the criminal justice system as well as adults may be able to and therefore there needs to be a focus on how the system can better aid in the rehabilitation of these youthfulRead MoreCrime Prevention Programs And Juvenile Delinquency1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCrime Prevention Programs Juvenile Delinquency Jenna Moffitt American Military University Professor Parkinson CMRJ295 November 29, 2015 Crime Prevention Programs Juvenile Delinquency Crime is the one constant thing in our country that will always be around. For decades we have enhanced our technology, changed our laws, put away criminals, but crime still, and will always exist. Crime prevention programs are put into place to help prevent juveniles and adults fromRead MoreThe Causes of Juvenile Delinquency and Crime Essay1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare not around. A teenÃ¢â¬â¢s social environment, consisting of family and peers, plays a vital role in their life, therefore becoming the ultimate cause of juvenile delinquency. A finding that emerges very strongly and consistently is that delinquents have very poor relationships with their parentsÃ¢â¬ (Gove 303-304). The teens who commit crimes often lack a parental figure in their lives. These teens are not strictly overseen by their parents, and their parents rarely know what they are up to or what theyRead MoreThe Andre Yates Case : Crime And Delinquency1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBeatrice Benjamin Crime and Delinquency SO209 12/03/14 The Andre Yates Case On June 20th 2001, Andrea Yates drowned her five children in the bathtub of her small suburban home in Clear Lake Texas. The subsequent trial and conviction caused a gargantuan amount of controversy. Jurors found Andrea guilty and sentenced her to life in prison despite the fact that there was an abundance of evidence to suggest that Andrea was legally insane at the time of the killings. In fact, 63% of the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Embezzlement seems to be a white collar crime that is victimless. However, when monies are embezzled from a non profit it affects all those involved especially those benefitting from the work of the nonprofit organization. I thought of our local community nonprofit arts foundation. They not only produce a full slate of shows each season, but also provide classes in painting, sculpting, drawing, acting, music, and dance. If they were defrauded in the amount of $93,000 it would affect educational programs and community outreach. In the scenario given, Ã¢â¬Å"BobÃ¢â¬ served in many positions within a nonprofit over a three year period of time and he stole $93,000 in a variety of ways. In a small nonprofit this might be a large percentage of their operating expenses. It could have an enormous impact on the nonprofit staying in operation as well as those who are served in the community. First we should address what the organization could have done to detect the theft earlier and areas the organization can prevent fraud. Next we will look at implementing safeguards and checks and balances to prevent future occurrences. And Finally, we will address a public relations campaign that will regain the trust of donors and the community. There are steps that could be taken to eliminate or reduce the possibility of theft as well as specific areas within the organization which can provide checks and balances. In a small nonprofit, often the business manager acts alone and operates as anShow MoreRelatedVictimless Crime1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesVictimless crime is defined as a violation of community standards or an illicit act against a government policy or agency (Wisegeek, 2009) yet, which neither directly harms nor violates the rights of any specific person, although some people may claim it harms society as a whole. Many people consider such acts as drunk driving, prostitution, public drunkenness, assisting someone to die at his or her request, using drugs, white-collar crimes, and abortion to be victimless crimes. They feel, as thoughRead MoreTypes of White Collar Crime686 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesName Tutor Course Title Date Submitted Types of White Collar Crime: There are different types of criminal offenses since a criminal act can be regarded as a specific type of offense based on the nature of crime. The various types of criminal activities have developed to become more than a single problem to nearly all criminal justice systems across the globe. The main reason for the divergent classification of criminal activities is because they occur in different settings and are conductedRead MoreWhite collar and corporate crime548 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Why does white collar and corporate crime tend to go undetected, Or if detected not prosecuted White collar and corporate crimes are crimes that many people do not associate with criminal activity. Yet the cost to the country due to corporate and white collar crime far exceeds that of Ã¢â¬Å"streetÃ¢â¬ crime and benefit fraud. White collar and corporate crimes refer to crimes that take place within a business or institution and include everything from Tax fraud to health and safety breaches. CorporateRead MoreDeviance And Crime1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Chapter 7 in our sociology book is about deviance, crime, and social control. This chapter was very interesting to me because it shows you how much violence is in our world that you do not really think about or hear about because it is overlooked. Everyone focuses on the big crimes, such as school shootings or terrorists acts, and overlook the victimless crimes and smaller things. This chapter also taught me a lot about deviance and made me form an opinion on whether it is a good or bad thing.Read MoreThe Scope and Severity of Arson for Profit Essay1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa form of insurance fraud that involves deliberately and intentionally setting fires for monetary gain (U.S. Fire Administration, 2009). Also called economic arson, arson for profit occurs when businesses or individuals deliberately set fires in order to dispose of insured property, including buildings, automobiles, boats, and land, and reap financial benefits by filing insurance claims against the property (U.S . Fire Administration, 2009). Arson for profit is a serious crime, resulting in destroyedRead MoreThe Five Types Of Crime1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Crime Classification Iliana Clark American InterContinental University Abstract This essay will explain the five different types of crime. These include: Crimes against persons, Crimes against property, and Crimes of public morality, White-collar crimes and Cyber crimes. Statistics show that we are likely to be a victim of one of these crimes. This essay will explain each crime and their differences, providing a definition by category of crime. They are many types of crimes butRead MoreThe White Collar Crime By Edwin Sutherland1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSutherland coined the term Ã¢â¬Ëwhite-collar crimeÃ¢â¬â¢ and defined it as Ã¢â¬Å"crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.Ã¢â¬ (Black, 2010). While Sutherland focused on the perpetrator and his/her characteristics and roles in committing the crime, there were flaws within this definition in that it would not endure the progression of white-collar crime. By focusing on the individual and paying more attention to the actual crime, criminologist and scientistRead MoreAdelphia: Lying, Cheating, and Stealing920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLying, Cheating and Stealing Lying, Cheating and Stealing White collar crime is not a victimless crime. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives can be ruined through the loss of a job, loss of savings and loss of assets. It is hard to not hear about white collar crime when looking at news. While not a justification for illegal actions, pressure is very high for companies to perform well and show growth. This pressure can lead people to commit crimes to falsify results or to enrich themselves. Laws and regulationRead More The Changing Nature of Crime and Law Enforcement Essay795 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschanging nature of crime and the ways criminals must be prosecuted. New dangers like terrorism, as well as old ones, such as public corruption, threaten the public and force police agencies to acclimate themselves to this new environment. President Clinton explained the need for the development of the federal and local law enforcement agencies. Ã¢â¬Å"We have begun to find a way to reduce crime, forming community partnerships with local police forces to catch criminals and prevent crime. This strategy, calledRead MoreThe Changing Nature of Crime and Law Enforcement824 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschanging nature of crime and the ways criminals must be prosecuted. New dangers like terrorism, as well as old ones, such as public corruption, threaten the public and force police agencies to acclimate themselves to this new environment. President Clinton explained the need for the development of the federal and local law enforcement agencies. We have begun to find a way to reduce crime, forming community partnerships with local police forces to catch criminals and prevent crime. This strategy,
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Hofstede Electronic Submission Coversheet TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT By electronically submitting this work, I certify that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ This assignment is my own work Ã¢â¬ ¢ It has not previously been submitted for assessment Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where material from other sources has been used it has been acknowledged properly Ã¢â¬ ¢ This work meets the requirement of the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics policy Student Name: nidi kumar Student Number : 9048219 Faculty: FBSE Level of study: level 6 Course title: International business management Unit title: Cross-cultural Management Assignment title: Airbus and GLOBE Assignment tutor: Peter Jordan Word count: 500 Learner request for feedback: TO BE COMPLETED BY STAFF Tutor feedback: Areas of Strength: Areas for Improvement: Grade mark: Submitted on time (Y/N): Tutor signature: Date: Identify the key cross-cultural issues faced by the Airbus consortium and relate these to the GlobeÃ¢â¬â¢s projects clusters of business cultures. Critically evaluate the usefulness of this research in understanding the issues involved and in devising viable solutions. What lessons can be learned for companies embarking on international projects? Introduction Cross-cultural management describes Ã¢â¬Å"organisational behaviour within countries and culturesÃ¢â¬ (Adler and Gundersen, 2008, p 13) as a result it compares the organisational behaviour across various countries and cultures and most importantly it seeks to comprehend and advance the Ã¢â¬Å"interaction of co-workers, managers, executives, clients, suppliers, and alliance partners from countries and cultures around the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Hofstede Cutlural Dimensions or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬ (Adler and Gundersen, 2008, p 13). A company that has experience of cross-cultural management and thus has its roots in several European countries is Airbus SAS. (Browaeys and Price, 2011). Outlined on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website they express their desire to overcome Ã¢â¬Å"national divides, sharing development costs, collaborating in the interest of a greater market share, and even agreeing a common set of measurements and a common languageÃ¢â¬ (Airbus. com cited in Browaeys and Price, 2011, p 67). However, as time progressed evidence suggests that this has not occurred as demonstrated in key cross-cultural issues experienced by the organisation. Introduction not yet complete (Try to make a generic view of CrossCultural Management beyond companies ie consider how CC management is dealt with across industry sectors ( most prevalent in telecoms organizations) also what are the Ã¢â¬Å"rootsÃ¢â¬ of CC management and how does it address new global challenges/provide new solutions)) Method of Research By comparison of 2 companies ie Airbus / Globe highlighting key CC management approaches, issues and solutions (Risk of systemic flaws in approach/repeatable failures) YOU should compare apples with apples ie list all significant issues, select an issue eg Economic Patriotism and evaluate the approach taken by both parties / im arguing for creating A table to do this we can talkÃ¢â¬ ¦ Key Cross-Cultural Issues faced by Airbus (Related to GlobeÃ¢â¬â¢s Cross-Cultural Approach) Problems Faced by Airbus (enumerate and modify in your own words) Socio-cultural technical problems. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The workforce at the aircraft manufacturer is geographically distributed in proportion to national ownership stakes. In an instance of economic nationalism, government distort private transactions among economic actors by discriminating against foreigners in the name of national interest. This lead to the decrease in the productive efficiency. It is because of the various differences of management styles and way of communication. For e. g. : comparing with the French people, the Germans prefer collective decision making, whereas the French prefer centralised decision. At the same time the Spanish are flexible but have inferiority complex, so they have tendency to be vague and unreliable due to which they respond very less. Ian Stokes, 2006). Ã¢â¬ ¢ The main problem is when EADS company of Airbus was created, two chief executives German and French headed it. It was maintained even due to knowing the fact of the crisis caused by problems in development in A380 began. Looking from the Hofstedes cultural dimensions the French likes high power distance whereas the Germans prefer low power distance. So while making decisions Germans tend to interfere in the conversations while it is being dislike by France people. So this unintentionally hurt the egoÃ¢â¬â¢s of the French people and creates a conflict between them. Hofstede. G, 1991) 1 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Due to the government involvement respective countries, cost cutting measures were delayed as state aid comes to rescue their respective partner first. From this situation it seems that power id distributed unequally. The government is being self centred and looking after its own motives. Even no action id being undertaken by the group members of the company in order to tackle this issue. It is in this area that a culture shows the extent to which it Ã¢â¬Ëtolerates and fosters pecking orders, and how actively members try to reduce themÃ¢â¬â¢. Mead, 1994; 66) 1 Ã¢â¬ ¢ One of the main causes in delay of the launch of Airbus A380 for two years was owing to the fact of having a complex wiring design system for it. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There were 1,200 functions to control the plane that takes 98,000 wires 40,000 connectors. The system has 500,000 models, which needs to be kept in sync from different countries. It was complicated and very much time consuming due the fact of the engineers being at different locations. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Even the aircraft parts were built at different locations. For example: nose sections are built in France, fuselages in Germany, wings in Great Britain and tails in Spain. And the final assembly were done in Toulouse (France). It unnecessarily increased the transportation cost, communication problems and foremost aspect time consumption. Ã¢â¬ ¢ There was a problem with regards to software and knowledge as well. The engineers in Germany and Spain used the older version V4 of the CAD program in order to design the wiring system, while the engineers in France and England used the newer version V5. This created trouble and delay while transferring the data because the some data was lost while transferring files from one system to another. Ã¢â¬ ¢ With regards to knowledge, French were familiar with the software while the Germans were not inexperienced compared to French. According to Hofstedes1 it seem that the French are more of individualistic in nature because they were least concerned about the training of its partner companyÃ¢â¬â¢s. You read "Hofstede Cutlural Dimensions" in category "Papers" Due to the lack of integration in engineering it resulted failure in execution. When the HRM team was most needed to train the employees ; communicate between them regarding the software problems, they were very busy with responding to the new legislation- such as those concerned with labour working hours and the French directive on rights of individuals to choose their own training. As the French are more type of individualism because of the preference towards centralised executive , they tend to first sort out their problems that made them busy in doing things which was not important compared to training problem. Ian Stokes, 2006) 1; (Trompenaars, 1993; 8-11) 1 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The top managers were busy struggling for the senior position in the consortium and lobbying for influence. These lead political goals get in the way of project goals. From this it seems that that the top managers were very much individualistic in nature. They were more interested in getting the name an enjoy being superior in the organization. They seemed to be self-achievement oriented and least concerned about the problems going on in the company. This dispersed the decision making power which was most needed in problems like this. (Hofstede, 1991) 1 All this problems lead to the delay in launch of Airbus A380 for two years that was scheduled to launch in 2006. Delay in delivery forced some airlines to cancel their orders. This gave them loss of euro 2 billion due that they had to make drastic cuts in the size of its workforce and closure of some plants, which in turn dented their image in the market. Efforts taken by Airbus to tackle the issues. In order to tackle the design of the wiring system and the software problems, Airbus made special investment to train its employees with the help of the software supplier. Ã¢â¬ ¢ They even tried to set up intercultural sessions to inspire a warm feeling of mutual understanding, but it failed to address adequately the fundamentals of co-operation. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The EADS managers most of the times tried to draw attention to the common areas and similarities, rather than differences in order to tackle the cross-cultural differences with regards to perceptions and doing things. They have distributed their workforce in proportion to the ownership stakes geographically because they thought that this would increase their productive efficiency. Put Table A in here Critical Evaluation of Research (based on analysis of table) Economic Patriotism: Many organisations are forced to develop and expand themselves into new markets overseas due to the increasing maturation of domestic markets and foreign competitors. In order to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors they are recognising their identity that can help them to sustain. The main motive behind this step is that by enlightening the only one of its kind personality or character of an organisation or group, all the way through symbols, communications and behaviours, it will help them to create favourable corporate image in the minds of these groups. Such differentiation will help them to create an image based on the uniqueness of its own identity, as well as creating a tendency in the minds of the people or groups as a basis for developing long-term profitable relationships. (Van, 1992) 2. Economic patriotism is most of similarly related on these theories. Economic patriotism means, Ã¢â¬Å"supporting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s countryÃ¢â¬ . Economic patriotism is the coordinated and the promoted behaviour of consumers or companies (both private and public) that consists of favouring the good or services produced in their country or in their group of countries (wikipedia) 3. According to me economic patriotism means favouring the people and practices done in ones own country, right or wrong. The main motive of the people living in their own country is to promote its thoughts, beliefs, way of doing business, etc. this is automatically done because they had been under the influence of such practices since their childhood. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like expressing that they love their country and ready to sacrifice for it. Economics patriotism can be done with the help of many activities for e. g. : imposing tariffs on imports, quota system, or encouraging consumers to purchase own domestic services and products. Now a days a new type of economic patriotism has came up that does not allows foreign investors to develop or acquire companies in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country. For e. g. : Arcelor acquired by Mittal (Largest steel industry). Government and political bodies are playing the main role to promote economic patriotism. Even in the Airbus case study economic patriotism has played a significant role in problems created by government of different countries. The workforce at the company is geographically distributed in proportion to national ownership stakes. So this makes the workforce far from each other. According to the company it may help them to increase productive efficiency. But in an instance of economic nationalism (whereby the people support their respective rights and countries), the government of respective countries changed private transactions according to their thoughts and practices in order to protect the local economic interests. They discriminated foreigners in the name of national interest. So political bodies came into role in order to support the local people. Their economic motives include the preservation of employment or attraction of economic activity to a certain area. And the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic motives were to include national security in order to capture rents abroad in monopolistic market. But the patriotic approach of the company proved ineffective because it conflicts with the economic efficiency, which derives from the protection of the interests of the local lobbies. pic] The company tried to integrate all its employees and create a sense of togetherness but the Ã¢â¬Å"economic patriotismÃ¢â¬ practiced by the people and government in respective countries failed the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. The politicians want to win the votes from people by supporting their interest. The damaged caused by economic nationalism indirectly created inefficiency and poor performance of corporate gov ernance. Due to this damage Airbus reputation was dented. The government did not supported because it conflicted with the ideas and thoughts of the government. The cost cutting measures were delayed because the state aid first comes to rescue the government-supported company. The competition increased because government supported companies had privileged access to infrastructure and procurement contracts. This delayed all the process in the company and unnecessarily increased the loss and the cost of production. Indirectly the Airbus suffered from takeover threats from the more efficient organisations. Finally, the national efforts to support oneÃ¢â¬â¢s interest proved to be self-defeating as other countries react in kind, neutralising the initial attempt to gain competitive advantage. Reflection of the way the company was organised. One of the causes of the delay was the complex wiring system and the software compatibility. The digital system has 500,000 models that need to be kept in sync. Despite of the fact that even a single mistake can create problems the company operated from different regions further complicating the wiring system. The seems to be communication gap between the employees because engineers in Germany and Spain used the older V4 version of the CAD program to design the wiring whereas engineers in France and England used the newer V5 version. Although it has been said by the software developer that both the version were compatible but the company should not have taken risks of going with different versions. Although there was claim by developer regarding compatibility the data was lost while transferring files from one system to another. The suppliers were also not involved in a collaborative effort to anticipate problems. There was lack of training and communication among the engineers as well. It can be seen because the engineers in France were familiar with the software while the Germans did not have much experience with it. This shows that there is centralised decision in the company that made other engineers lack of knowledge. They built the different parts in different region, which further complicated the assembling system due to the lack of communication related to knowledge and software problems. Author Hellemans notes that Ã¢â¬Ëwhat happened in Germany was not just technical problems related to software but it was an execution failure due to lack of efficient knowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢. (Davis, 2007) 1 From the problems that Airbus faced, the company was not properly organised because it seems that relied mostly on the software developer regarding the solutions. There was even lack of training, communication and transparency within the organisation. It seems that mostly the decision were made in headquarters only, not with the consent of other people. The merger of the national components in 2001 only integrated themselves officially but mentally they were far away from each other. It even seems to be inequality from lack of technological development equally because when France England upgraded themselves to V5 version, the German and Spain were still on the V4 versions. Lessons Learned. what are the lessons learnt from this specific research ie outcomes from analysis of the table/also comment on the quality of the research / ie selection of evaluation Ã¢â¬Å"parametersÃ¢â¬ to compare, what if scenarios / heuristics / deductions / further research) In the real world there is not any specific best way to integrate diverse cultures within an international joint venture. It solely depends upon the situation and the kind of cultures involves . But I am trying to be closer to individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception and actions that may lead to a common ground where everyone accept each other. Research: Proper research needs to done before setting up such a culturally diversified company. Research should be on the basis of the cultural dimension of Hofstedes1 i. e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculine vs. feminine, short-term vs. long-term orientation, what they like and what they donÃ¢â¬â¢t. It helps them to integrate all their activities on the common grounds and come up with a solution that maybe acceptable to everyone. CollectivistÃ¢â¬â¢s approach: As we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any idea about what peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s want and desires are, a collectivists approach will explore the ideas and perceptions about each other. It will gradually help to know each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and beliefs that can be helpful to achieve the desired goals and objectives. Initially it may create problems but at the later stage when everybody has been known to each other it help people or employees to understand regarding what to do and what not to do. Diffuse relationships: The company employees need to be considered as members of a group or an organization. They should be involved decision-making process. It helps the employees to build rapport between themselves that in turn explore each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and beliefs. Their relationships with each other helps us to find how efficient the organization is and what steps need to be taken in order to tackle the cross-cultural issues. Teambuilding session should be conducted in order to create a feeling of oneness, which can increase the efficiency of a company. (Trompenaars, 1993; 8-11) 1. Equality: If we integrate diverse cultures within international joint venture equality should be always there in term development, technological advancement, knowledge, etc. n the Airbus it failed because Germany ; Spain had V4 version of the Cad programme whereas France ; England had the latest V5 version. So always proper standardisation should be adopted within the whole organization at a specific time. Global knowledge, local understanding: the approach should be to indulge diverse cultures but the process should be local. It means any activity done should be on the basis of the activity carries out in the home country of any organisation. Proper training should be given to its employees from the engineers at headquarters because they know it better than anyone else. This helps them to consume less time and achieve perfection, stabilisation, which is considered to be vital in any industry in order to achieve goals and objectives. Training can even be of language, way of doing things, actions, etc. Due to lack of proper training the Germans were not familiar with the software, it more delayed the project while executing the fuselages. Time focus (polychromic): Initially the top managers need to be polychromic in time i. e. the top managers need to focus on several tasks ; should be less dependent on detailed information hile doing these tasks. Their main focus should be on involvement with people. This helps the employees or the partners in business to be much more expressive and approach the management whenever they feel to do so. (Hall ; hall, 1990). References. 1. Marie-Joelle Browaeys and Roger Price Ã¢â¬â Understanding Cross-Cultural Management, 2008. 2. Marlo Thomas; Helene Hill, International Marketing Review, Vol16, Number: 4/5, Year: 1 999, pp: 376-390. 3. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Economic_nationalism. Read more: http://www. ukessays. om/essays/cultural-studies/airbus-case-study. php#ixzz2BNsfYQjM Economic Patriotism A key cross-cultural issue which has been highlighted is the considerable damage caused by economic patriotism to Airbus. An example of this economic patriotism which caused difficulties was the issue of German and Spanish engineers using the older V4 version of the CAD program; whereas the UK and France used the new V5 version. A significant reason for the rejection of the new system has been emphasized by Williams (cited in Clark, 2006) as a matter of national pride. The Germans felt the French were imposing the new system upon them, causing them to reject it. In relation to the GLOBE theory, this act can be identified as an action of assertiveness from German employees, due to the fact that they would rather emphasis on results rather than relationships. Furthermore, Webber (cited in Clark, 2006) expressed this when he explained that Ã¢â¬Å"changing over to new software is costly and time consuming. As a result, German employees faced French imposition with confrontation. German and French governments also had extensive involvement causing increased economic patriotism. Will add government issues here and relate to individualism from Hofstede Reorganisation of company Airbus required a reorganisation of the company in order to improve Ã¢â¬Å"co-ordination, reduce the costs of production and the time between conception of planes and their introduction into service. Ã¢â¬ (Browaeys and Price, 2011, p 67), however this was not planned efficiently , due to the fact that culture differences would arise. A significant issue Airbus faced was the problem of having two CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s, one from Germany, the other from France. This caused significant concerns because they had to compromise over key decisions due to each country having different cultural approaches to business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ This part will be related to power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism (institutional)(no consideration for others) , future and performance orientation(very little performance as they are not achieving anything) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Will include evidence that relates to the Airbus and globe Ã¢â¬ ¢ Decentralized management Ã¢â¬ ¢ Loss profits Ã¢â¬ ¢ Common language didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go as planned Gender egalitarianism I will discuss gender egalitarianism as itÃ¢â¬â¢s a key issue because in the case study evidence suggests itÃ¢â¬â¢s a male dominated job Critically evaluate In this part of the essay I will evaluate the usefulness of the theory including issues such as: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data collected from 2004 (therefore not up-to-date) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Quantitative research rather than qualitative Lessons learned Ã¢â¬ ¢ Equality Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rappor t between employees Ã¢â¬ ¢ More intensive research needs to be done Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diffuse relationships Ã¢â¬ ¢ Integrate activities on common ground Reference page ADLER, N. , and A. GUNDERSEN, 2008. International Dimensions of Organisational Behaviour. 5th ed. USA: Thomson Higher Education BROWAEYS, M. , and R. PRICE, 2011. Understanding cross cultural management. 2nd ed. England: Pearson Education Limited CLARK, N. , 2006. The airbus saga: crossed wired and a multibillion-euro delay- Business-International Herald Tribune [online] [viewed 25 October 2012]. Available from: http://www. nytimes. com/2006/12/11/business/worldbusiness/11iht-airbus. 3860198. html? pagewanted=all Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Important Ã¢â¬â choose one of the following statements (DELETE TWO THAT DO NOT APPLY): Intermediate submission How to cite Hofstede Cutlural Dimensions, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis Essay Ã¢â¬Å"The Rime of the Ancient MarinerÃ¢â¬ by Samuel Taylor Coleridge The poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,Ã¢â¬ by Samuel Taylor Coleridge is a truly imaginative work utilizing the familiar yet timeless themes of good fortune, the power of Mother Nature, and adventurous voyages over the sea. The Mariner relates the bone-chilling tale of his adventure to a guest at a wedding in his native country. Although the guest succumbs to the MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s tale, he is eager to get to the wedding, which is about to start. Coleridge chose this occasion for the poem as a form of irony, by providing a stark contrast between the two atmospheres and situations in his poem. The moods of weddings are usually joyful and jubilant, emphasizing love and the union between two people through marriage. However, within this setting, the Mariner relates his eerie story of a frightful, spooky, and somber voyage, which, instead of union, emphasizes the MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s separation and loneliness, as he is doomed with a to watch the death of his crew and suffer alone for days. Because he killed the albatross, the Mariner suffers a terrible curse, stranded alone on a ship surrounded by his dead crewmates and at the mercy of Mother Nature. An albatross hangs around his neck as a constant reminder to his blunder and the hovering curse. However, the albatross finally falls from the MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s neck, when he begins focusing less on himself and exhibits a greater appreciation and respect for natureÃ¢â¬â¢s creatures, mingled with heartfelt remorse for killing the albatross. In Part V, Coleridge writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh happy living things! o tongue / Their beauty might declare: / A spring of love gushed from my heart, / And I blessed them unaware; / Sure my kind saint took pity on me, / And I blessed them unaware. / The selfsame moment I could pray: / And from my neck so free / The Albatross fell off, and sank / Like lead into the sea. Ã¢â¬ Once the Mariner genuinely praises the beauty of the colorful water snakes he sees in the water, the curse begins to lift , the albatross falls from his neck, and the Mariner is again able to pray. Throughout the poem, the albatross serves as a symbol for both good fortune and sin. We will write a custom essay sample on The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer While the albatross was still alive, it represented good luck that caused a breeze to blow the ship from the icy South Pole towards the Equator. However, in its death by the hands of the Mariner, the albatross is a testament of the MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s sin, and by hanging around the MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s neck, it symbolizes a hovering curse. The MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s lifelong penance is to relay his story and message throughout the lands to the various individuals he holds a calling towards. The Mariner can only relieve his frequents bouts of extreme agony and guilt from his past by narrating his story and lesson to others, bidding them not to make the same mistake he did. Initially, the listener is reluctant to hear the MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s tale, eager to get to the wedding that is about to begin. However, the listener is somehow drawn to the Mariner and yields to his tale. He becomes enchanted, and by the taleÃ¢â¬â¢s end, the listener is left, shocked, speechless, and in awe. He gains a new perspective of the world, and the poem ends with the words, Ã¢â¬Å"He [the listener] went like one that hath been stunned / And is of sense forlorn; / A sadder and a wiser man, / He rose the morrow morn. Ã¢â¬ The MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s tale suggests a larger lesson about human life, expressing that humans are not superior to the rest of Creation and nature. Humans and all other life are equal inhabitants on planet Earth and must therefore treat each other with respect and appreciation. It is vital to appreciate natureÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty for the magnificent gift it truly is, and one can only express true devotion and faith to God through prayer by respecting his Creation. Love for God only exists if humans love the life around them. This lesson regarding nature can be related to the message and plot within Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus, because the main characters within both novels reveal a blatant disregard for nature and the harmony of life. In ColeridgeÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, the Mariner disrespects nature and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Creation by killing the albatross upon whim Ã¢â¬â a beautiful bird that grants the crew and ship good luck. Similarly, Dr. Frankenstein disregards nature by creating his own human life. He attempts to assume GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power of Creation in an unnatural, almost perverse form, by creating another life for his own curiosity and satisfactions, without any consideration for the consequences. Both characters also suffer from Ã¢â¬Å"cursesÃ¢â¬ of sorts. The MarinerÃ¢â¬â¢s crew drops dead, and the Mariner is forced to spend days surrounded by his dead crew stranded upon the ship in the middle of nowhere. Similarly, Dr. FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s monster escapes and Ã¢â¬Å"hauntsÃ¢â¬ Frankenstein causing disaster throughout his home town, such as the murder of his little brother. In conclusion, both works express the significance of appreciating the beauty of nature and all GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Creation.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The Influence of Tradition in Japanese Cinema essays Japanese culture has arisen as a mixture of the East and the West. Japanese have been able to keep their traditional aesthetic features while they also embraced western style, which was filtered through Japanese tradition. The presence of the Benshi ( a commentator who narrated the action of the film) could be a suitable example of the situation. The beliefs of Japanese people are East originated. Shintoism and Buddhism give lots of importance to the spirits and supernatural forces which are also cultivated in the Japanese mythology. Some of the Japanese directors have been able to combine a western visual art form (cinema) with their traditional beliefs different from the western examples of the same subject matter. In contemporary cinema this particular subject matter (ghosts/demons) mostly taken into the consideration as an element of the horror, but in Japanese cinema they are the elements of the drama ( particularly the spirit itself ) as well as a horrifying object. That is to say according to their beliefs, spirits are the ones who are suffering either because lack of the prayers that let them pass to the Land of the Dead, or because of the evil feelings/behaviors while they were in the Land of the Living. Dramatic situations of the suffering souls are represented in a poetic way, as the general look of the Japanese cinema relies on empty spaces, plainness, and landscape appearances. These features also exists one of their basic ordinary life rituels; tea- ceremony. The tea- ceremony room is decorated almost empty with a plain style and prefarably located with a view of a garden. This proves that ordinary life rituels influces the aestetic features of the Japanese cinema. These i nfluences becomes the resources of the national cinema of Japan. The narration in the Japanese cinema mostly relies on the style which ables to transfer the ideas ( of the director) through the atmosphere of the fil...
Monday, March 2, 2020
This Sink Needs Fixed This Sink Needs Fixed This Sink Needs Fixed By Maeve Maddox Maureen Garrison writes: Have you discussed the way people leave out to be in phrases such as This needs to be washed? Ã I keep hearing and seeing in print, This needs washed. Ã I assume it should be, This needs to be washed, or This needs washing, but maybe Im missing something. Ã Id love to see an explanation. Is this a mistake, a colloquialism, or something that is new only to me? What I call the needs fixed construction is a regionalism that has gained wide acceptance in colloquial speech. The expression is often associated with Pittsburgh and a narrow band in the middle of the country extending from the east coast to Montana. I grew up outside those regional boundaries and am quite used to hearing The lawn needs mowed and This sink needs fixed. The construction, standard in Scottish usage, seems to stir the hackles of US speakers to whom it is unfamiliar. I wont bother to quote any of the ugly comments about it that Ive read on other language sites. Here are some web examples from different regions: Lee Adama needs slapped (Scots blogger) Microsoft Needs Slapped. (Texas) Help! My Lawn NEEDS mowed! My Toro Starts but Stalls! (Ohio) The expression is camouflaged by other words in the following sentence, but I think it also partakes of the needs fixed pattern: The Left Needs Its Mouth Washed Out With Soap (Washington DC) Objections ariseand are validif the word needs is regarded as a transitive verb. Speakers who see needs as a transitive verb understandably want it to be followed by a discernible object: a noun substitute, either a to be phrase or a present participle: The lawn needs to be mowed. The lawn needs mowing. However, the word needs does not function as a transitive verb in the expression needs fixed. It acts as a kind of auxiliary verb, similar to to be in a passive construction. The -ed word that follows is also a verb. The lawn needs mowed differs from The lawn needs mowing and The lawn needs to be mowed in that the desired action goes beyond a projected future event and anticipates an accomplished fact. The needs fixed construction demands action. The alternative versions permit a vagueness that needs fixed does not. It says no more dilly-dallying! This lawn needs mowed today! If you want supper, this stove needs fixed. Bottom line: The needs fixed expression is best avoided in a formal context, but theres nothing wrong with its informal use. Use the version you prefer and let others do the same without ridicule. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Addressing A Letter to Two PeopleSelect vs. Selected10 Functions of the Comma
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Write a short on Information System (IS) development philosophies and methodologies - Essay Example thodology a hierarchical categorization is required that detaches basic or Ã¢â¬Å"essentialÃ¢â¬ characteristic from Ã¢â¬Å"accidentalÃ¢â¬ particulars (Avison & Fitzgerald, 2002; Iivari et al., 1999). This paper presents a detailed analysis of the information system development philosophies and methodologies. Information systems development methodology is simply an instantiation that is established for one or more information systems development approaches (ISDAs). In addition, the information systems development approaches encompass the necessary features; those are then inherited for the information systems development methodologies belonging to that class. Additionally, one significant implication of systematizing the area of information systems development methodologies into an understandable amount of ISDAs is to move the influence from individual ISDMs to the characteristics of all-purpose information systems development methodologies, like terms of essence of their illustration methodology. Furthermore, the strong appearances of information systems development methodologies make it probable to widen the practical experience of systems developers. Since, they allow flexible, situation-oriented Ã¢â¬Å"methodology engineeringÃ¢â¬ thus an information systems development methodology is adopted to a specific ISD project in the course of an instantiation of a suitable information systems development methodology (Iivari et al., 1999; Bielkowicz et al., 2002). Socio-Technical Approach is a technique for information system development that facilitates future users to play a major role in the system designing, to fulfill requirements, additional technical and operational objectives, to make sure that the new technical system is enclosed with a well-matched and well-functioning business system (Fitzgerald et al., 1985; Walters et al., 1994). Socio-Technical Approach encompasses the guiding principles and beliefs that are about the self-design of a working system. In addition, the