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Air Compressor Systems Introduction

Air Compressor Systems Introduction Air Compressor System furnishes high weight packed air with ensuing decrease in volume for a scope of...

Monday, August 24, 2020

Air Compressor Systems Introduction

Air Compressor Systems Introduction Air Compressor System furnishes high weight packed air with ensuing decrease in volume for a scope of modern and residential applications. They have become basic gear in pretty much every industry. Because of its high proficiency, achievable operational parameters and assorted scope of uses, they have increased across the board notoriety and no industry is finished without a minimized blower framework. The essential goal of this report is to comprehend the significance of air blower frameworks. Also, the report covers a wide range of blower applications and procedures. The various kinds of blowers, alongside their benefits and negative marks have been portrayed. The significant operational parameters have been characterized alongside their significance in the pressure procedure. Air is free, though packed high weight air isn't. Consistent with the expression, producing high weight packed air isn't a practical and vitality effective procedure. High beginning and upkeep expenses can expand the general blower cost all things considered. Legitimate and very much kept up blower frameworks can lessen vitality utilization from 30-half. Different strides to lessen vitality utilization and increment by and large productivity have been nitty gritty in the report. For a useful use of blower keenness, a contextual investigation has been led on an ELGI Compressor which is under activity in Arabian Cement Industry. With the information gathered from the investigation, certain operational parameters were determined and comparing derivations were drawn. Toward the finish of the investigation, we can close the present condition of the blower and detail certain means to improve proficiency and blower execution. The eventual fate of air blower frameworks has been a steady research subject among industrialists. The cutting edge methods of Heat Recovery Systems in air blowers and utilization of Variable Speed Drives have been quickly definite to give a view into a brilliant eventual fate of air blower frameworks. Section 1 Prologue to Air Compressor Systems In most mechanical applications, compacted air is considered as the fourth utility, went before by the three fundamental utilities; water, power and gaseous petrol. Commonly, a straightforward air blower is a mechanical gadget that admissions encompassing air and expands the pressurewith decrease in volume by accomplishing deal with the working liquid, to be specific air or gas. The essential target of utilizing a blower is to give high weight air utilizing least conceivable force utilization. The pressure can happen in any of the three different ways; adiabatic, isothermal or polytropic. For an Adiabatic pressure process, there is thought to be no warmth misfortune or addition from the framework. At the point when the temperature of air at gulf approaches temperature of packed air at outlet, the pressure procedure is Isothermal. Ordinarily, a run of the mill pressure process includes Polytropic Compression. The weight, temperature and volume of air it delta and outlet differ with the particular conditions. The least conceivable work of pressure is accomplished in an adiabatic pressure process as the net work done by the framework is zero. [1] The adiabatic productivity is the most extreme conceivable blower proficiency and blowers are structured with blower efficiencies to such an extent that, there is practically zero variety among the two. As referenced before, compacted air is viewed as an utility due to their assorted applications in different mechanical and metallurgical activities. The compacted air gracefully is perfect, helpful, sheltered and adaptable for use. Modern uses can be credited to when they are regarding packed air engines for working of pneumatic instruments, crude material passing on through pipes, regarding a supply for capacity of compacted air for future applications. 1.2 Historical Background The most punctual archived utilization of the blower goes back to around fourth century B.C. In those occasions, the blower was named as a water organ. The water organ was developed by Ctesibius of Alexandria. The plan included a chamber loaded up with air and water, a water siphon, assortment of channels of different measurements and associating cylinders and valves. The component of activity was moderately straightforward; by siphoning water into the chamber, the air gets compacted. [2] With headway of time and innovation, different upgrades and developments were made to the water organ. In 1808, the Multi Stage Axial Compressor, planned by John Dumball, came into mechanical application. In any case, this structure didn't accomplish wide-spread ubiquity on the grounds that the blower involved moving edges without fixed cutting edges to move the wind stream into the progressive pressure stage. During the nineteenth century, the development of the Roots Blower was a tremendous advance prompting creation of present day air blower frameworks. Philander and Francis Roots planned the Roots blower, while contriving a reasonable trade for the water wheel at their woolen plant. The roots blower comprised of various impeller sets turning in inverse directions.[3] Dr. Franze Stolze structured the cutting edge blower in 1900; which included a multi stage pivotal stream blower with a burning chamber, multi-stage hub turbine alongside a regenerator to warm the released air using exhaust squander gases. 1.3 Applications of Compressed Air High weight packed air is generally utilized for modern and residential applications because of their high effectiveness and easy operational nature. The controlling of pneumatic gear is one of the significant uses of compacted air. Pneumatic apparatuses are lighter, convey more force and not inclined to over-burdening, in contrast to electric engine run hardware. Compacted air driven instruments can accomplish high by and large torque and ideal speed in a limited ability to focus time. They are more secure when contrasted with electric driven instruments in light of no sparkle conditions and less overheating. [4] Compacted air is additionally utilized for crude material vehicle, burning procedures, for example, oxidation, thermodynamic tasks, for example, refrigeration and cryogenics. Filtration, air circulation and lack of hydration forms are likewise determined by packed air. Non-mechanical uses of packed air incorporate transportation, mining and agriculture.[5] 1.4 Components of Air Compressor System Because of the assorted uses of packed air, air blower frameworks merit a perplexing and complex plan. Air blower frameworks comprise of various sub-frameworks and segments, which incorporate the air blower, engine and drive unit, control frameworks, air delta channels, air dryers, after-coolers and different other retrofitted segments. During the activity of an air blower framework, the encompassing air is taken into the framework via air channel channels. The engine and apparatus unit controls the blower framework to build the weight of air. The essential capacity of an incorporated control framework is to manage the measure of air admission and air release from the framework. Treatment gear, for example, an Air Dryer and Air Separator are utilized to expel contaminants and give dampness and oil free pressurized air. The Outlet and Distribution frameworks assume the essential job of moving the packed air to the different required sources. In ordinary mechanical applications, the pressurized air is put away in an Air Reservoir or Storage Tank for sometime later. The significant parts of an air blower are point by point underneath: Admission Air Filter: Ambient air enters the blower by means of bay air channels. Filtration components in consumption channels encourage filtration of particulate issue present in air. This permits the passage of spotless and dry air into the blower. Blower Cooling: A generous measure of warmth is created during blower process. Therefore, cooling and grease of the framework is obligatory for lessening wear and harm to the blower saves; in this way expanding blower effectiveness. Blowers are typically cooled utilizing air, water or (oil). [6] Between Stage Coolers: Inter coolers go about as warmth exchangers to bring down the temperature of air before it goes into progressive phases of compression.[7] This decrease of temperature is vital to diminish the general pressure work and increment blower effectiveness. After-Coolers: After coolers are utilized toward the finish of pressure procedure to bring down the release temperature of air. During this last phase of activity, as the temperature is brought down, dampness present in air consolidates and isolated from the release air. Air Separators: Separators go about as an improved after-cooler. Theyare introduced either after a between cooler or after-cooler to dry up release air. Air-Dryers: Normally, after the compacted air has gone through all the previously mentioned gear, release air is passed into the air-dryer before capacity in the repository. The air that arrives at the dryer is immersed. On the off chance that this soaked air enters the channeling, it can prompt consumption and harm to the vehicle gear. The Relative Humidity (dampness content) in barometrical air is moderately high. At the point when this air is packed at high weight, it possesses a little volume and high temperature. At a particular temperature, all the dampness present in air gathers. This temperature is known as Dew Point. This procedure is cycled in an air-dryer to guarantee that dampness free air arrives at the capacity area.[8] Weight Regulators/Flow Controller: PFCs are helper equipmentthat limits pressure drops in the framework by settling framework pressure. Grease: Lubrication is a principal requirement for powerful packed air activity. A lubricator is utilized to grease up and cool the moving parts and forestall overheating. In certain frameworks, the lubricator is retrofitted with a compacted channel and weight stream controller to mold a framework known as Filter Regulator Lubricant (FRL).[10] Air Receivers: The high weight packed air from the framework is released to

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Earthquake Power Essay Example

Tremor Power Essay The size 6. 3 (ML) earthquake[1] struck the Canterbury area in New Zealands South Island at 12:51 pm on Tuesday, 22 February 2011 neighborhood time (23:51 21 February UTC). [1][9] The quake was focused 2 kilometers (1. 2 mi) west of the port town of Lyttelton, and 10 kilometers (6 mi) south-east of the focal point of Christchurch, New Zealands second-most crowded city. [1] It followed almost a half year after the extent 7. 1 Canterbury tremor of 4 September 2010, which made noteworthy harm Christchurch and the focal Canterbury district, yet no direct fatalities.The seismic tremor caused far reaching harm across Christchurch, particularly in the focal city and eastern rural areas, with harm exacerbated by structures and foundation previously being debilitated by the 4 September 2010 quake and its delayed repercussions. Noteworthy liquefaction influenced the eastern rural areas, creating around 400,000 tons of residue. The shallow quake was accounted for to be felt over the South Island and the lower and focal North Island. While the underlying shudder just last around 10 seconds, the region and profundity of its area to Christchurch notwithstanding the past tremors were the explanation behind so much destruction.In all out, 185 individuals were killed in the earthquake,[6][7] making it the second-deadliest catastrophic event recorded in New Zealand (after the 1931 Hawkes Bay seismic tremor), and fourth- deadliest fiasco of any sort recorded in New Zealand, with nationals from in excess of 20 nations among the people in question. [10] Over portion of the passings happened in the six-story Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which fallen and burst into flames in the shudder. The administration proclaimed a condition of national crisis, which remained in power until 30 April 2011. 11] The all out expense to back up plans of modifying was initially evaluated at NZ$15 billion. [12][13] At that point it was at that point anticipated to be by a wide margin New Zealands costliest cataclysmic event, and the third-costliest tremor (ostensibly) around the world. [14] But by April 2013, the absolute evaluated cost had swelled to $40 billion. [15] Some financial specialists have assessed it will take the New Zealand economy 50 to 100 years to totally recoup. [16] The seismic tremor was the most harming in a year-long quake swarm influencing the Christchurch area.It was trailed by an enormous consequential convulsion on 13 June (which caused impressive extra harm) and a progression of huge stuns on 23 December 2011. Substance [hide] * 1 Geology * 1. 1 Main consequential convulsions since 22 February 2011 * 1. 2 Canterbury district long haul probabilities * 2 Emergency the executives * 2. 1 Police * 2. 2 Search and salvage * 2. 3 Defense powers * 2. 4 Medical reaction * 2. 5 Humanitarian and government assistance * 2. 6 Infrastructure and backing * 3 Casualties, harm, and different impacts * 3. 1 Casualties * 3. 1. 1 Animal losses * 3. 2 Buildings influenced * 3. 3 Suburbs * 3. 4 Beyond Christchurch 3. 5 Christchurch International Airport * 3. 6 Sport * 4 Response * 4. 1 International * 4. 2 Fundraising and good cause occasions * 4. 3 Memorial administrations * 4. 4 Commission of Inquiry * 5 Recovery * 5. 1 Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority * 5. 2 Housing * 5. 3 Schools and colleges * 6 Economic effect * 7 Cancellation of 2011 registration * 8 See likewise * 9 Refe rences * 10 Further perusing * 11 External connections Geology[edit source | editbeta] Earthquake power map Location of the 12:51pm tremor focal point inside Christchurch The 6. 3 shake was presumably a post-quake tremor of the 7. - size 4 September 2010 Canterbury quake. While New Zealands GNS Science portray it as in fact a post-quake tremor of the prior occasion, different seismologists, including those from USA and Geoscience Australia, think of it as a different occasion, given its area on a different flaw framework. [17][18] The seismic tremor has created its very own noteworthy arrangement consequential convulsions, huge numbers of which are viewed as large for a 6. 3 shudder. [19] 361+ consequential convulsions (greatness 3+ foreshocks incl) were knowledgeable about the main week, the biggest estimating extent 5. 9, which happened just shy of 2 hours after the principle stun. [20] A 5. - greatness consequential convulsion on 16 April,[21] the biggest for half a month, brough t on additional harm, including power cuts and a few enormous stone falls. [22] Another delayed repercussion hit the Christchurch area on 10 May 2011 from the Greendale flaw estimating 5. 3 extent. It cut force for a couple of moments and made further harm structures in the downtown area. No passings or wounds were accounted for. It was felt as distant as Dunedin and Greymouth. [23] On 6 June, an enormous consequential convulsion happened, estimating 5. 5 on the Richter scale. The shake was felt as distant as Kaikoura and Oamaru. [22] A progression of delayed repercussions happened on 13 June.A tremor of 5. 7 was felt at 1 pm NZT, with profundity of 9 km and a focal point at Taylors Mistake,[24] followed by a 6. 3 tremor a little more than an hour later, with a profundity of 6 km, found 10 km east of the city. [25] Power was sliced to around 54,000 homes, with further harm and liquefaction in effectively debilitated territories. The Lyttelton Timeball Station collapsed[26] and Chris tchurch Cathedral continued more harm. At any rate 46 individuals were accounted for harmed. [27] Initial reports propose the tremor happened at a profundity of 5 kilometers (3 mi); further investigation of seismic information may bring about an amendment of that profundity. 19] Early reports proposed that it happened on a formerly obscure faultline running 17 km east-west from Scarborough Hill in South Eastern Christchurch to Halswell, at profundities of 3â€12 km,[28] yet the Institute of Professional Engineers have since expressed that GNS Science accept that the seismic tremor emerged from the crack of a 8 x 8 km deficiency running east-upper east at a profundity of 1â€2 km profundity underneath the southern edge of the Avon-Heathcote Estuary and plunging southwards at an edge of around 65 degrees from the flat underneath the Port Hills. [29] Although the burst was subsurface (I. . didn't break the surface), satellite pictures demonstrate the net removal of the land south o f the flaw was 50 cm westwards and upwards; the land development would have been more noteworthy during the tremor. [30] Land development is fluctuated around the zone horizontallyâ€in both east and west directionsâ€and vertically; the Port Hills have been raised by 40 cm. [31] Satellite picture demonstrating shaking quality (snap to grow) The tremor was a hit slip occasion with angled motionâ€mostly level development with some vertical movement[32]â€with switch push (I. . vertical development upwards). [3] The vertical increasing speed was far more noteworthy than the even quickening. [32] The force felt in Christchurch was MM VIII. [33] The pinnacle ground increasing speed (PGA) in focal Christchurch surpassed 1. 8g (I. e. 1. multiple times the speeding up of gravity),[34] with the most noteworthy account 2. 2g, at Heathcote Valley Primary School,[3] a shaking force identical to MM X+. [35] This is the most elevated PGA ever recorded in New Zealand; the most elevated p erusing during the September 2010 occasion was 1. 26g, recorded close Darfield. 34] The PGA is likewise one of the best ever ground increasing speeds recorded in the world,[36] and was bizarrely high for a 6. 3 shake. [19] and the most noteworthy a vertical way. [37] The focal business region (CBD) experienced PGAs in the scope of 0. 574 and 0. 802 g. [38] conversely, the 7. 0 Mw 2010 Haiti seismic tremor had an expected PGA of 0. 5g. [36] The increasing speed happened for the most part in a vertical direction,[32] with onlooker records of individuals being hurled into the air. [36] The upwards (positive speeding up) was more noteworthy than the downwards, which had a most extreme account of 0. g; the most extreme recorded flat speeding up was 1. 7g[37] The power of the shudder was measurably improbable to happen more than once in 1000 years, as indicated by one seismic specialist, with a PGA more noteworthy than numerous advanced structures were intended to withstand. [39] New Zeal and construction standards require a structure with a 50-year plan life to withstand anticipated heaps of a 500-year occasion; introductory reports by GNS Science recommend ground movement extensively surpassed even 2500-year plan motions,[40] past most extreme thought about occasions (MCE). 41] By examination, the 2010 quakeâ€in which harm was prevalently to pre-1970s buildingsâ€exerted 65% of the structure stacking on structures. [39] The increasing speed experienced in February 2011 would absolutely level most world urban communities, causing gigantic death toll; in Christchurch, New Zealands tough construction laws restricted the catastrophe. [18] However, the most serious shaking kept going just 12 seconds, which maybe forestalled progressively broad harm. [41] It is likewise conceivable that seismic lensing added to the ground impact, with the seismic waves bouncing back off the hard basalt of the Port Hills over into the city. 28] Geologists detailed liquefaction was mo re awful than the 2010 shake. [32] The tremor additionally caused noteworthy landslips and rockfalls on the Port Hills. [32] Although littler in extent than the 2010 tremor, the seismic tremor was all the more harming and savage for various reasons. The focal point was nearer to Christchurch, and shallower at 5 kilometers (3 mi) underground, though the September shake was estimated at 10 kilometers (6 mi) profound. The February seismic tremor happened during noon on a weekday when the CBD was occupied, and numerous structures were at that point debilitated from the past shakes. 42][43] The PGA was very high, and synchronous vertical and level ground development was practically incomprehensible for structures to endure flawless. [32] Liquefaction was essentially more noteworthy than that of the 2010 shake, causing the upwelling of in excess of 200,000 tons of silt[44][45] which should have been cleared. The expanded liquefaction caused huge ground development, subverting numerous est ablishments and pulverizing foundation, harm which might be the best at any point recorded anyplace in an advanced city. [29] 80% of the water

Sunday, July 19, 2020


hubraum In Berlin, we meet Peter Borchers who founded and heads the Deutsche Telekom Incubator hub:raum.Peter describes the business model behind hub:raum, which divided into an incubator and accelerator programs. Peter also talk about how it can help young entrepreneurs grow their company to the next level and he shares his valuable advice.The transcript of the interview is below.Martin: Hi, today we are in Berlin at Hub:raum, the Telekom accelerator and incubator. Peter, who are you and what do you do?Peter: Hi Martin. Im founder and head of Hub:raum. Hub:raum is the incubator/accelerator of Deutsche Telekom so were supporting start ups in the early, seed stage, helping them by funding them and advising them, helping them to build their product and their company.Martin: And what did you do before you started this Hub:raum?Peter: Quite some varieties in my career. So, already during and because of my studies I started to build the company. It was before the internet age, so therefore it was nt directly related with the Internet. It was kind of an advertising agency. I then started out at the consulting firm and then went in 97 into the sphere of internet. So I started as a product manager for very early, internet products back then and actually that was at Deutsche Telekom as well, but I left the company again after two and a half years or so to build my own startup, which was called Everseven, together with three friends. So, that was a marketplace for freelancers, basically, for the communications and media industry. Actually, we went bust like the bubble did back then, so through some consulting jobs and without having it planned I came back to Deutsche Telekom actually, and worked in our headquarters at corporate strategy. So one of my projects was what later became entertain our TV product, so I did the initial strategy product for that. I then built up a daughter company for Deutsche Telekom, also in the innovation sphere, which was called Telekom Innovations Gmb H. So were building products outside headquarters, also it was located here in Berlin, dedicated GmbH so a little bit also outside the structures of a typical corporate. Products like fussball.de, for example, came out of that, or three-minutes short film Portal, very early short film Portal and also it was called Twister, a very early second screen product so that was between 2006 and 2008 or so. And then, when T-ano GmbH, as it was called, to shorten the name a little bit, when we migrated back into the corporation, so back at the Deutsche Telekom AG, I was kind of well I mean I still got my money but I didnt have a structured job anymore so I thought about what to do with my time, also thought about potentially leaving the company but then thought that basically what Ive learnt during my professional life so far so being an entrepreneur on one hand side being in a large corporation on the other hand side so I thought there must be a way to kind of pragmatically connect those two worlds and create something that helps both worlds equally. And is what eventually came after another two and a half years at Hub:raum.Martin: And can you tell us about the Hub:raum business model? I know there is an accelerator and you have an incubator, can you tell us a little bit more about that?Peter: Our main activity is the incubator. The incubator means that teams that become part of it get basic four things: #1, funding, up to 300.000 Euros; #2: a place to work so behind us here you see, youve just seen our co-working space; then #3: we have a big network of advisors, of mentors from the startup scene, but also experts from Deutsche Telekom, domain experts like security space or so; and last not least, its a pragmatic way for startups to connect with a large corporation and also profit from the strengths of a large corporation like the reach, for example.Martin: And how can I as an entrepreneur gain reach through Telekom?Peter: Well, I mean, there are several ways because t he product portfolio of Telekom is so huge so I mean theres lots of ways to interact with the corporation like DT. But one is, for example, T-systems we have. T-systems is the unit of Deutsche Telekom that serves the 400 biggest customers like very big global corporations or governments, or so. So their sales force are always happy to take some of the products for startups with them when approaching their clients and basically, well yeah, make it potentially more interesting also for the clients to get introduced to new products, also trying to bundle their existing products with our product, so thats one way. But there is also problems like the pop-ups program at T-mobile. So, every month theres approximately 10 apps, mobile apps that get featured within the T-Mobile network, so thats another example. But it can also be, I mean, like with one of our start ups Q-learning that Telekom just becomes a customer and buys the product.Martin: Ok, I understood from this B2C side that its to p apps and B2B is T-systems. In terms of this B2B side when I have built a product, some kind of subscription model that could target other Fortune 500 companies and who do I need to convince at Telekom so they will implement my product and sell it to their clients?Peter: Well, first of all, you should convince the Hub:raum team and get accepted into the program and then actually what were doing is we are really trying to help the company, the start up, to find their way because it would be so incredibly difficult for a start up to actually find their way through the big jungle that every large corporation is. So, we have in place a handful of what we call cumulationship managers and they are really helping the startup to get access to the right person at the right time and also try to kind of facilitate the whole process.Martin: And you talked about this incubator model. How do you help your companies or portfolio companies for raising additional money once they leave your program ?Peter: So, after typically 9-12 months they need additional money and there are several ways. I mean, that could be a follow on investment by T-Venture, for example, so Deutsche Telekom had, for more than decade, we have dedicated venture funds so this is way number one. Way number two would be to get money from another external investor, like I typical VC, and we have quite a broad network of VC so we try to introduce our startups early on to them, we also have a yearly portfolio day that helps introduce our startups, so we are really trying to help get the follow-up on financing as smoothly as possible.Martin: And in terms of your accelerator, how does it work?Peter: So, the accelerator basically is kind of the little sister or little brother of the incubator. Its basically the same but its shorter and its without money but also without equity. So its basically a no-strings-attached program for the startups and they also get access to our co-working space, they get access to our network of mentors, of experts and also access to Deutsche Telekom.Martin: So, they also get the same access to T-systems, for example? Great, okay.Martin: We always try to teach first-time entrepreneurs not to make as much mistakes as they may be doing, and what have been the major learning for you? When starting your own company and when seeing other entrepreneurs failing and succeeding?Peter: Well, I mean, theres an infinite area of things an entrepreneur should think of, but maybe to name a few. I think first of all its super important with whom youre working. So, with whom youre working on one hand side as advisors and as an investors, but also your own team. So you should really focus on getting the best people and getting the best team to work because this is the basis for everything else. Then, I would say another important aspect is, and this also has kind of changed you to the lean startup movement, that, as a startup, I would always try to start building something, start getting something to work, get it in front of customers, get their feedback and then get moving like that. And also, I would only approach a VC or an incubator after having done at least a few steps. I mean, we also have accepted ideas on paper, but its far easier to get the idea over to, for example, the investor, if there is already something in place, like a prototype or so. What else? I mean, actually, one thing might not be typical learning, but in inside that I get, and that is interesting because, when startups approach us, they are so convinced about the product and they know their product so well that often times, and thats really strange, they just forget to really explain what their product is. So theyre coming in, telling everything about their marketing strategy, about their internationalization plans, everything, everything. But they forget to tell in a few sentences, sometimes they are because I didnt ask them, sometimes they are not even able to really condense it an d just say in one or two sentences what their product is. And this is something I was really, I mean, I was in the beginning, I was kind of shocked but now I see its often, and its really strange. I think thats the thing that is typical potentially to first-time founders, they wont do it second time, I assume, also, when telling them they kind ofMartin: You can change quite fast, yeah?Peter: Its no problem, I mean, they know their product, but they just, often times they just forget to really tell it and to have one or two sentence kind of elevator pitch thing in mind, every entrepreneur should have something like that in mind.Martin: Ok. Peter, thank you very much for your time.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Essay on Crime and Delinquency - 1407 Words

Crime and Delinquency In 1939 Criminologist Edwin H. Sutherland proposed his theory of Differential Association in his Principles of Criminology textbook. Differential Association theory states that criminal behavior is learned behavior. Sutherland along with Richard Cloward, and Lloyd Ohlin attempted to explain this phenomenon by emphasizing the role of learning. To become a criminal, a person must not only be inclined toward illegal activity, he or she must also learn how to commit criminal acts. Sutherland’s differential association theory contends that people whose environment provides the opportunity to associate with criminals will learn these skills and will become criminals in response to strain. If the necessary learning†¦show more content†¦5) The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from the definition of legal codes are favorable and unfavorable 6) A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law 7) Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity 8) The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patters involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. 9) Through criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values. The weak points of the theory of Edwin Sutherland are (1) doesnt specifically answer why everyone in contact with an excess of criminal behavior patterns doesnt become criminal and (2) differential Association also fails to tell us how the first criminal became a criminal. A group of labeling theorists began exploring how and why certain acts were defined as criminal or deviant and why other such acts were not. They questioned how and why certain peopleShow MoreRelatedJuvenile Delinquency Is A Crime967 Words   |  4 PagesJuvenile Delinquency is a crime categorize mainly based on age. Juvenile delinquency the definition under the criminal law it generally refers to behavior which shall be subject to criminal penalties for people age under 18 being implemented. Juvenile delinquency is an increasingly common social problem facing the U.S currently. The problem of juvenile delinquency is also very prominent, and the severity of their crimes have been gaining awareness of the whole society. 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Though the crime rates in MA and across the nation are on a steady decline, these juvenile crimes are still considered a serious matter that needs attention. It is thought that juvenile offenders do not cope as well with the criminal justice system as well as adults may be able to and therefore there needs to be a focus on how the system can better aid in the rehabilitation of these youthfulRead MoreCrime Prevention Programs And Juvenile Delinquency1378 Words   |  6 PagesCrime Prevention Programs Juvenile Delinquency Jenna Moffitt American Military University Professor Parkinson CMRJ295 November 29, 2015 Crime Prevention Programs Juvenile Delinquency Crime is the one constant thing in our country that will always be around. For decades we have enhanced our technology, changed our laws, put away criminals, but crime still, and will always exist. Crime prevention programs are put into place to help prevent juveniles and adults fromRead MoreThe Causes of Juvenile Delinquency and Crime Essay1432 Words   |  6 Pagesare not around. A teen’s social environment, consisting of family and peers, plays a vital role in their life, therefore becoming the ultimate cause of juvenile delinquency. A finding that emerges very strongly and consistently is that delinquents have very poor relationships with their parents† (Gove 303-304). The teens who commit crimes often lack a parental figure in their lives. These teens are not strictly overseen by their parents, and their parents rarely know what they are up to or what theyRead MoreThe Andre Yates Case : Crime And Delinquency1602 Words   |  7 PagesBeatrice Benjamin Crime and Delinquency SO209 12/03/14 The Andre Yates Case On June 20th 2001, Andrea Yates drowned her five children in the bathtub of her small suburban home in Clear Lake Texas. The subsequent trial and conviction caused a gargantuan amount of controversy. Jurors found Andrea guilty and sentenced her to life in prison despite the fact that there was an abundance of evidence to suggest that Andrea was legally insane at the time of the killings. In fact, 63% of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fraud A White Collar Crime That Is Victimless - 992 Words

Embezzlement seems to be a white collar crime that is victimless. However, when monies are embezzled from a non profit it affects all those involved especially those benefitting from the work of the nonprofit organization. I thought of our local community nonprofit arts foundation. They not only produce a full slate of shows each season, but also provide classes in painting, sculpting, drawing, acting, music, and dance. If they were defrauded in the amount of $93,000 it would affect educational programs and community outreach. In the scenario given, â€Å"Bob† served in many positions within a nonprofit over a three year period of time and he stole $93,000 in a variety of ways. In a small nonprofit this might be a large percentage of their operating expenses. It could have an enormous impact on the nonprofit staying in operation as well as those who are served in the community. First we should address what the organization could have done to detect the theft earlier and areas the organization can prevent fraud. Next we will look at implementing safeguards and checks and balances to prevent future occurrences. And Finally, we will address a public relations campaign that will regain the trust of donors and the community. There are steps that could be taken to eliminate or reduce the possibility of theft as well as specific areas within the organization which can provide checks and balances. In a small nonprofit, often the business manager acts alone and operates as anShow MoreRelatedVictimless Crime1399 Words   |  6 PagesVictimless crime is defined as a violation of community standards or an illicit act against a government policy or agency (Wisegeek, 2009) yet, which neither directly harms nor violates the rights of any specific person, although some people may claim it harms society as a whole. Many people consider such acts as drunk driving, prostitution, public drunkenness, assisting someone to die at his or her request, using drugs, white-collar crimes, and abortion to be victimless crimes. They feel, as thoughRead MoreTypes of White Collar Crime686 Words   |  3 PagesName Tutor Course Title Date Submitted Types of White Collar Crime: There are different types of criminal offenses since a criminal act can be regarded as a specific type of offense based on the nature of crime. The various types of criminal activities have developed to become more than a single problem to nearly all criminal justice systems across the globe. The main reason for the divergent classification of criminal activities is because they occur in different settings and are conductedRead MoreWhite collar and corporate crime548 Words   |  3 Pages Why does white collar and corporate crime tend to go undetected, Or if detected not prosecuted White collar and corporate crimes are crimes that many people do not associate with criminal activity. Yet the cost to the country due to corporate and white collar crime far exceeds that of â€Å"street† crime and benefit fraud. White collar and corporate crimes refer to crimes that take place within a business or institution and include everything from Tax fraud to health and safety breaches. CorporateRead MoreDeviance And Crime1611 Words   |  7 Pages Chapter 7 in our sociology book is about deviance, crime, and social control. This chapter was very interesting to me because it shows you how much violence is in our world that you do not really think about or hear about because it is overlooked. Everyone focuses on the big crimes, such as school shootings or terrorists acts, and overlook the victimless crimes and smaller things. This chapter also taught me a lot about deviance and made me form an opinion on whether it is a good or bad thing.Read MoreThe Scope and Severity of Arson for Profit Essay1640 Words   |  7 Pagesa form of insurance fraud that involves deliberately and intentionally setting fires for monetary gain (U.S. Fire Administration, 2009). Also called economic arson, arson for profit occurs when businesses or individuals deliberately set fires in order to dispose of insured property, including buildings, automobiles, boats, and land, and reap financial benefits by filing insurance claims against the property (U.S . Fire Administration, 2009). Arson for profit is a serious crime, resulting in destroyedRead MoreThe Five Types Of Crime1398 Words   |  6 Pages Crime Classification Iliana Clark American InterContinental University Abstract This essay will explain the five different types of crime. These include: Crimes against persons, Crimes against property, and Crimes of public morality, White-collar crimes and Cyber crimes. Statistics show that we are likely to be a victim of one of these crimes. This essay will explain each crime and their differences, providing a definition by category of crime. They are many types of crimes butRead MoreThe White Collar Crime By Edwin Sutherland1604 Words   |  7 PagesSutherland coined the term ‘white-collar crime’ and defined it as â€Å"crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.† (Black, 2010). While Sutherland focused on the perpetrator and his/her characteristics and roles in committing the crime, there were flaws within this definition in that it would not endure the progression of white-collar crime. By focusing on the individual and paying more attention to the actual crime, criminologist and scientistRead MoreAdelphia: Lying, Cheating, and Stealing920 Words   |  4 PagesLying, Cheating and Stealing Lying, Cheating and Stealing White collar crime is not a victimless crime. People’s lives can be ruined through the loss of a job, loss of savings and loss of assets. It is hard to not hear about white collar crime when looking at news. While not a justification for illegal actions, pressure is very high for companies to perform well and show growth. This pressure can lead people to commit crimes to falsify results or to enrich themselves. Laws and regulationRead More The Changing Nature of Crime and Law Enforcement Essay795 Words   |  4 Pageschanging nature of crime and the ways criminals must be prosecuted. New dangers like terrorism, as well as old ones, such as public corruption, threaten the public and force police agencies to acclimate themselves to this new environment. President Clinton explained the need for the development of the federal and local law enforcement agencies. â€Å"We have begun to find a way to reduce crime, forming community partnerships with local police forces to catch criminals and prevent crime. This strategy, calledRead MoreThe Changing Nature of Crime and Law Enforcement824 Words   |  4 Pageschanging nature of crime and the ways criminals must be prosecuted. New dangers like terrorism, as well as old ones, such as public corruption, threaten the public and force police agencies to acclimate themselves to this new environment. President Clinton explained the need for the development of the federal and local law enforcement agencies. We have begun to find a way to reduce crime, forming community partnerships with local police forces to catch criminals and prevent crime. This strategy,

Hofstede Cutlural Dimensions Free Essays

string(33) " of its partner company’s\." Hofstede Electronic Submission Coversheet TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT By electronically submitting this work, I certify that: †¢ This assignment is my own work †¢ It has not previously been submitted for assessment †¢ Where material from other sources has been used it has been acknowledged properly †¢ This work meets the requirement of the University’s ethics policy Student Name: nidi kumar Student Number : 9048219 Faculty: FBSE Level of study: level 6 Course title: International business management Unit title: Cross-cultural Management Assignment title: Airbus and GLOBE Assignment tutor: Peter Jordan Word count: 500 Learner request for feedback: TO BE COMPLETED BY STAFF Tutor feedback: Areas of Strength: Areas for Improvement: Grade mark: Submitted on time (Y/N): Tutor signature: Date: Identify the key cross-cultural issues faced by the Airbus consortium and relate these to the Globe’s projects clusters of business cultures. Critically evaluate the usefulness of this research in understanding the issues involved and in devising viable solutions. What lessons can be learned for companies embarking on international projects? Introduction Cross-cultural management describes â€Å"organisational behaviour within countries and cultures† (Adler and Gundersen, 2008, p 13) as a result it compares the organisational behaviour across various countries and cultures and most importantly it seeks to comprehend and advance the â€Å"interaction of co-workers, managers, executives, clients, suppliers, and alliance partners from countries and cultures around the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Hofstede Cutlural Dimensions or any similar topic only for you Order Now † (Adler and Gundersen, 2008, p 13). A company that has experience of cross-cultural management and thus has its roots in several European countries is Airbus SAS. (Browaeys and Price, 2011). Outlined on the company’s website they express their desire to overcome â€Å"national divides, sharing development costs, collaborating in the interest of a greater market share, and even agreeing a common set of measurements and a common language† (Airbus. com cited in Browaeys and Price, 2011, p 67). However, as time progressed evidence suggests that this has not occurred as demonstrated in key cross-cultural issues experienced by the organisation. Introduction not yet complete (Try to make a generic view of CrossCultural Management beyond companies ie consider how CC management is dealt with across industry sectors ( most prevalent in telecoms organizations) also what are the â€Å"roots† of CC management and how does it address new global challenges/provide new solutions)) Method of Research By comparison of 2 companies ie Airbus / Globe highlighting key CC management approaches, issues and solutions (Risk of systemic flaws in approach/repeatable failures) YOU should compare apples with apples ie list all significant issues, select an issue eg Economic Patriotism and evaluate the approach taken by both parties / im arguing for creating A table to do this we can talk†¦ Key Cross-Cultural Issues faced by Airbus (Related to Globe’s Cross-Cultural Approach) Problems Faced by Airbus (enumerate and modify in your own words) Socio-cultural technical problems. †¢ The workforce at the aircraft manufacturer is geographically distributed in proportion to national ownership stakes. In an instance of economic nationalism, government distort private transactions among economic actors by discriminating against foreigners in the name of national interest. This lead to the decrease in the productive efficiency. It is because of the various differences of management styles and way of communication. For e. g. : comparing with the French people, the Germans prefer collective decision making, whereas the French prefer centralised decision. At the same time the Spanish are flexible but have inferiority complex, so they have tendency to be vague and unreliable due to which they respond very less. Ian Stokes, 2006). †¢ The main problem is when EADS company of Airbus was created, two chief executives German and French headed it. It was maintained even due to knowing the fact of the crisis caused by problems in development in A380 began. Looking from the Hofstedes cultural dimensions the French likes high power distance whereas the Germans prefer low power distance. So while making decisions Germans tend to interfere in the conversations while it is being dislike by France people. So this unintentionally hurt the ego’s of the French people and creates a conflict between them. Hofstede. G, 1991) 1 †¢ Due to the government involvement respective countries, cost cutting measures were delayed as state aid comes to rescue their respective partner first. From this situation it seems that power id distributed unequally. The government is being self centred and looking after its own motives. Even no action id being undertaken by the group members of the company in order to tackle this issue. It is in this area that a culture shows the extent to which it ‘tolerates and fosters pecking orders, and how actively members try to reduce them’. Mead, 1994; 66) 1 †¢ One of the main causes in delay of the launch of Airbus A380 for two years was owing to the fact of having a complex wiring design system for it. †¢ There were 1,200 functions to control the plane that takes 98,000 wires 40,000 connectors. The system has 500,000 models, which needs to be kept in sync from different countries. It was complicated and very much time consuming due the fact of the engineers being at different locations. †¢ Even the aircraft parts were built at different locations. For example: nose sections are built in France, fuselages in Germany, wings in Great Britain and tails in Spain. And the final assembly were done in Toulouse (France). It unnecessarily increased the transportation cost, communication problems and foremost aspect time consumption. †¢ There was a problem with regards to software and knowledge as well. The engineers in Germany and Spain used the older version V4 of the CAD program in order to design the wiring system, while the engineers in France and England used the newer version V5. This created trouble and delay while transferring the data because the some data was lost while transferring files from one system to another. †¢ With regards to knowledge, French were familiar with the software while the Germans were not inexperienced compared to French. According to Hofstedes1 it seem that the French are more of individualistic in nature because they were least concerned about the training of its partner company’s. You read "Hofstede Cutlural Dimensions" in category "Papers" Due to the lack of integration in engineering it resulted failure in execution. When the HRM team was most needed to train the employees ; communicate between them regarding the software problems, they were very busy with responding to the new legislation- such as those concerned with labour working hours and the French directive on rights of individuals to choose their own training. As the French are more type of individualism because of the preference towards centralised executive , they tend to first sort out their problems that made them busy in doing things which was not important compared to training problem. Ian Stokes, 2006) 1; (Trompenaars, 1993; 8-11) 1 †¢ The top managers were busy struggling for the senior position in the consortium and lobbying for influence. These lead political goals get in the way of project goals. From this it seems that that the top managers were very much individualistic in nature. They were more interested in getting the name an enjoy being superior in the organization. They seemed to be self-achievement oriented and least concerned about the problems going on in the company. This dispersed the decision making power which was most needed in problems like this. (Hofstede, 1991) 1 All this problems lead to the delay in launch of Airbus A380 for two years that was scheduled to launch in 2006. Delay in delivery forced some airlines to cancel their orders. This gave them loss of euro 2 billion due that they had to make drastic cuts in the size of its workforce and closure of some plants, which in turn dented their image in the market. Efforts taken by Airbus to tackle the issues. In order to tackle the design of the wiring system and the software problems, Airbus made special investment to train its employees with the help of the software supplier. †¢ They even tried to set up intercultural sessions to inspire a warm feeling of mutual understanding, but it failed to address adequately the fundamentals of co-operation. †¢ The EADS managers most of the times tried to draw attention to the common areas and similarities, rather than differences in order to tackle the cross-cultural differences with regards to perceptions and doing things. They have distributed their workforce in proportion to the ownership stakes geographically because they thought that this would increase their productive efficiency. Put Table A in here Critical Evaluation of Research (based on analysis of table) Economic Patriotism: Many organisations are forced to develop and expand themselves into new markets overseas due to the increasing maturation of domestic markets and foreign competitors. In order to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors they are recognising their identity that can help them to sustain. The main motive behind this step is that by enlightening the only one of its kind personality or character of an organisation or group, all the way through symbols, communications and behaviours, it will help them to create favourable corporate image in the minds of these groups. Such differentiation will help them to create an image based on the uniqueness of its own identity, as well as creating a tendency in the minds of the people or groups as a basis for developing long-term profitable relationships. (Van, 1992) 2. Economic patriotism is most of similarly related on these theories. Economic patriotism means, â€Å"supporting one’s country†. Economic patriotism is the coordinated and the promoted behaviour of consumers or companies (both private and public) that consists of favouring the good or services produced in their country or in their group of countries (wikipedia) 3. According to me economic patriotism means favouring the people and practices done in ones own country, right or wrong. The main motive of the people living in their own country is to promote its thoughts, beliefs, way of doing business, etc. this is automatically done because they had been under the influence of such practices since their childhood. It’s like expressing that they love their country and ready to sacrifice for it. Economics patriotism can be done with the help of many activities for e. g. : imposing tariffs on imports, quota system, or encouraging consumers to purchase own domestic services and products. Now a days a new type of economic patriotism has came up that does not allows foreign investors to develop or acquire companies in one’s country. For e. g. : Arcelor acquired by Mittal (Largest steel industry). Government and political bodies are playing the main role to promote economic patriotism. Even in the Airbus case study economic patriotism has played a significant role in problems created by government of different countries. The workforce at the company is geographically distributed in proportion to national ownership stakes. So this makes the workforce far from each other. According to the company it may help them to increase productive efficiency. But in an instance of economic nationalism (whereby the people support their respective rights and countries), the government of respective countries changed private transactions according to their thoughts and practices in order to protect the local economic interests. They discriminated foreigners in the name of national interest. So political bodies came into role in order to support the local people. Their economic motives include the preservation of employment or attraction of economic activity to a certain area. And the company’s strategic motives were to include national security in order to capture rents abroad in monopolistic market. But the patriotic approach of the company proved ineffective because it conflicts with the economic efficiency, which derives from the protection of the interests of the local lobbies. pic] The company tried to integrate all its employees and create a sense of togetherness but the â€Å"economic patriotism† practiced by the people and government in respective countries failed the company’s objectives. The politicians want to win the votes from people by supporting their interest. The damaged caused by economic nationalism indirectly created inefficiency and poor performance of corporate gov ernance. Due to this damage Airbus reputation was dented. The government did not supported because it conflicted with the ideas and thoughts of the government. The cost cutting measures were delayed because the state aid first comes to rescue the government-supported company. The competition increased because government supported companies had privileged access to infrastructure and procurement contracts. This delayed all the process in the company and unnecessarily increased the loss and the cost of production. Indirectly the Airbus suffered from takeover threats from the more efficient organisations. Finally, the national efforts to support one’s interest proved to be self-defeating as other countries react in kind, neutralising the initial attempt to gain competitive advantage. Reflection of the way the company was organised. One of the causes of the delay was the complex wiring system and the software compatibility. The digital system has 500,000 models that need to be kept in sync. Despite of the fact that even a single mistake can create problems the company operated from different regions further complicating the wiring system. The seems to be communication gap between the employees because engineers in Germany and Spain used the older V4 version of the CAD program to design the wiring whereas engineers in France and England used the newer V5 version. Although it has been said by the software developer that both the version were compatible but the company should not have taken risks of going with different versions. Although there was claim by developer regarding compatibility the data was lost while transferring files from one system to another. The suppliers were also not involved in a collaborative effort to anticipate problems. There was lack of training and communication among the engineers as well. It can be seen because the engineers in France were familiar with the software while the Germans did not have much experience with it. This shows that there is centralised decision in the company that made other engineers lack of knowledge. They built the different parts in different region, which further complicated the assembling system due to the lack of communication related to knowledge and software problems. Author Hellemans notes that ‘what happened in Germany was not just technical problems related to software but it was an execution failure due to lack of efficient knowledge’. (Davis, 2007) 1 From the problems that Airbus faced, the company was not properly organised because it seems that relied mostly on the software developer regarding the solutions. There was even lack of training, communication and transparency within the organisation. It seems that mostly the decision were made in headquarters only, not with the consent of other people. The merger of the national components in 2001 only integrated themselves officially but mentally they were far away from each other. It even seems to be inequality from lack of technological development equally because when France England upgraded themselves to V5 version, the German and Spain were still on the V4 versions. Lessons Learned. what are the lessons learnt from this specific research ie outcomes from analysis of the table/also comment on the quality of the research / ie selection of evaluation â€Å"parameters† to compare, what if scenarios / heuristics / deductions / further research) In the real world there is not any specific best way to integrate diverse cultures within an international joint venture. It solely depends upon the situation and the kind of cultures involves . But I am trying to be closer to individual’s perception and actions that may lead to a common ground where everyone accept each other. Research: Proper research needs to done before setting up such a culturally diversified company. Research should be on the basis of the cultural dimension of Hofstedes1 i. e. power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculine vs. feminine, short-term vs. long-term orientation, what they like and what they don’t. It helps them to integrate all their activities on the common grounds and come up with a solution that maybe acceptable to everyone. Collectivist’s approach: As we don’t have any idea about what people’s want and desires are, a collectivists approach will explore the ideas and perceptions about each other. It will gradually help to know each other’s ideas and beliefs that can be helpful to achieve the desired goals and objectives. Initially it may create problems but at the later stage when everybody has been known to each other it help people or employees to understand regarding what to do and what not to do. Diffuse relationships: The company employees need to be considered as members of a group or an organization. They should be involved decision-making process. It helps the employees to build rapport between themselves that in turn explore each other’s ideas and beliefs. Their relationships with each other helps us to find how efficient the organization is and what steps need to be taken in order to tackle the cross-cultural issues. Teambuilding session should be conducted in order to create a feeling of oneness, which can increase the efficiency of a company. (Trompenaars, 1993; 8-11) 1. Equality: If we integrate diverse cultures within international joint venture equality should be always there in term development, technological advancement, knowledge, etc. n the Airbus it failed because Germany ; Spain had V4 version of the Cad programme whereas France ; England had the latest V5 version. So always proper standardisation should be adopted within the whole organization at a specific time. Global knowledge, local understanding: the approach should be to indulge diverse cultures but the process should be local. It means any activity done should be on the basis of the activity carries out in the home country of any organisation. Proper training should be given to its employees from the engineers at headquarters because they know it better than anyone else. This helps them to consume less time and achieve perfection, stabilisation, which is considered to be vital in any industry in order to achieve goals and objectives. Training can even be of language, way of doing things, actions, etc. Due to lack of proper training the Germans were not familiar with the software, it more delayed the project while executing the fuselages. Time focus (polychromic): Initially the top managers need to be polychromic in time i. e. the top managers need to focus on several tasks ; should be less dependent on detailed information hile doing these tasks. Their main focus should be on involvement with people. This helps the employees or the partners in business to be much more expressive and approach the management whenever they feel to do so. (Hall ; hall, 1990). References. 1. Marie-Joelle Browaeys and Roger Price – Understanding Cross-Cultural Management, 2008. 2. Marlo Thomas; Helene Hill, International Marketing Review, Vol16, Number: 4/5, Year: 1 999, pp: 376-390. 3. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Economic_nationalism. Read more: http://www. ukessays. om/essays/cultural-studies/airbus-case-study. php#ixzz2BNsfYQjM Economic Patriotism A key cross-cultural issue which has been highlighted is the considerable damage caused by economic patriotism to Airbus. An example of this economic patriotism which caused difficulties was the issue of German and Spanish engineers using the older V4 version of the CAD program; whereas the UK and France used the new V5 version. A significant reason for the rejection of the new system has been emphasized by Williams (cited in Clark, 2006) as a matter of national pride. The Germans felt the French were imposing the new system upon them, causing them to reject it. In relation to the GLOBE theory, this act can be identified as an action of assertiveness from German employees, due to the fact that they would rather emphasis on results rather than relationships. Furthermore, Webber (cited in Clark, 2006) expressed this when he explained that â€Å"changing over to new software is costly and time consuming. As a result, German employees faced French imposition with confrontation. German and French governments also had extensive involvement causing increased economic patriotism. Will add government issues here and relate to individualism from Hofstede Reorganisation of company Airbus required a reorganisation of the company in order to improve â€Å"co-ordination, reduce the costs of production and the time between conception of planes and their introduction into service. † (Browaeys and Price, 2011, p 67), however this was not planned efficiently , due to the fact that culture differences would arise. A significant issue Airbus faced was the problem of having two CEO’s, one from Germany, the other from France. This caused significant concerns because they had to compromise over key decisions due to each country having different cultural approaches to business. †¢ This part will be related to power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism (institutional)(no consideration for others) , future and performance orientation(very little performance as they are not achieving anything) †¢ Will include evidence that relates to the Airbus and globe †¢ Decentralized management †¢ Loss profits †¢ Common language didn’t go as planned Gender egalitarianism I will discuss gender egalitarianism as it’s a key issue because in the case study evidence suggests it’s a male dominated job Critically evaluate In this part of the essay I will evaluate the usefulness of the theory including issues such as: †¢ Data collected from 2004 (therefore not up-to-date) †¢ Quantitative research rather than qualitative Lessons learned †¢ Equality †¢ Rappor t between employees †¢ More intensive research needs to be done †¢ Diffuse relationships †¢ Integrate activities on common ground Reference page ADLER, N. , and A. GUNDERSEN, 2008. International Dimensions of Organisational Behaviour. 5th ed. USA: Thomson Higher Education BROWAEYS, M. , and R. PRICE, 2011. Understanding cross cultural management. 2nd ed. England: Pearson Education Limited CLARK, N. , 2006. The airbus saga: crossed wired and a multibillion-euro delay- Business-International Herald Tribune [online] [viewed 25 October 2012]. Available from: http://www. nytimes. com/2006/12/11/business/worldbusiness/11iht-airbus. 3860198. html? pagewanted=all ———————– Important – choose one of the following statements (DELETE TWO THAT DO NOT APPLY): Intermediate submission How to cite Hofstede Cutlural Dimensions, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis Essay Example

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis Essay â€Å"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner† by Samuel Taylor Coleridge The poem, â€Å"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,† by Samuel Taylor Coleridge is a truly imaginative work utilizing the familiar yet timeless themes of good fortune, the power of Mother Nature, and adventurous voyages over the sea. The Mariner relates the bone-chilling tale of his adventure to a guest at a wedding in his native country. Although the guest succumbs to the Mariner’s tale, he is eager to get to the wedding, which is about to start. Coleridge chose this occasion for the poem as a form of irony, by providing a stark contrast between the two atmospheres and situations in his poem. The moods of weddings are usually joyful and jubilant, emphasizing love and the union between two people through marriage. However, within this setting, the Mariner relates his eerie story of a frightful, spooky, and somber voyage, which, instead of union, emphasizes the Mariner’s separation and loneliness, as he is doomed with a to watch the death of his crew and suffer alone for days. Because he killed the albatross, the Mariner suffers a terrible curse, stranded alone on a ship surrounded by his dead crewmates and at the mercy of Mother Nature. An albatross hangs around his neck as a constant reminder to his blunder and the hovering curse. However, the albatross finally falls from the Mariner’s neck, when he begins focusing less on himself and exhibits a greater appreciation and respect for nature’s creatures, mingled with heartfelt remorse for killing the albatross. In Part V, Coleridge writes, â€Å"Oh happy living things! o tongue / Their beauty might declare: / A spring of love gushed from my heart, / And I blessed them unaware; / Sure my kind saint took pity on me, / And I blessed them unaware. / The selfsame moment I could pray: / And from my neck so free / The Albatross fell off, and sank / Like lead into the sea. † Once the Mariner genuinely praises the beauty of the colorful water snakes he sees in the water, the curse begins to lift , the albatross falls from his neck, and the Mariner is again able to pray. Throughout the poem, the albatross serves as a symbol for both good fortune and sin. We will write a custom essay sample on The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Analysis specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer While the albatross was still alive, it represented good luck that caused a breeze to blow the ship from the icy South Pole towards the Equator. However, in its death by the hands of the Mariner, the albatross is a testament of the Mariner’s sin, and by hanging around the Mariner’s neck, it symbolizes a hovering curse. The Mariner’s lifelong penance is to relay his story and message throughout the lands to the various individuals he holds a calling towards. The Mariner can only relieve his frequents bouts of extreme agony and guilt from his past by narrating his story and lesson to others, bidding them not to make the same mistake he did. Initially, the listener is reluctant to hear the Mariner’s tale, eager to get to the wedding that is about to begin. However, the listener is somehow drawn to the Mariner and yields to his tale. He becomes enchanted, and by the tale’s end, the listener is left, shocked, speechless, and in awe. He gains a new perspective of the world, and the poem ends with the words, â€Å"He [the listener] went like one that hath been stunned / And is of sense forlorn; / A sadder and a wiser man, / He rose the morrow morn. † The Mariner’s tale suggests a larger lesson about human life, expressing that humans are not superior to the rest of Creation and nature. Humans and all other life are equal inhabitants on planet Earth and must therefore treat each other with respect and appreciation. It is vital to appreciate nature’s beauty for the magnificent gift it truly is, and one can only express true devotion and faith to God through prayer by respecting his Creation. Love for God only exists if humans love the life around them. This lesson regarding nature can be related to the message and plot within Mary Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus, because the main characters within both novels reveal a blatant disregard for nature and the harmony of life. In Coleridge’s poem, the Mariner disrespects nature and God’s Creation by killing the albatross upon whim – a beautiful bird that grants the crew and ship good luck. Similarly, Dr. Frankenstein disregards nature by creating his own human life. He attempts to assume God’s power of Creation in an unnatural, almost perverse form, by creating another life for his own curiosity and satisfactions, without any consideration for the consequences. Both characters also suffer from â€Å"curses† of sorts. The Mariner’s crew drops dead, and the Mariner is forced to spend days surrounded by his dead crew stranded upon the ship in the middle of nowhere. Similarly, Dr. Frankenstein’s monster escapes and â€Å"haunts† Frankenstein causing disaster throughout his home town, such as the murder of his little brother. In conclusion, both works express the significance of appreciating the beauty of nature and all God’s Creation.